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Prison privatization essay

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essays on puritans and puritanism - A prison (also known as a jail or gaol (dated, British and Australian English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (or centre if outside the US), correction center (American English), correctional facility, lock-up or remand center) is a facility in which inmates (or prisoners) are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Definition. Privatization is the process of transferring ownership of a business, enterprise, agency, charity or public service from the public sector (the state or government) or common use to the private sector (businesses that operate for a private profit) or to private non-profit a broader sense, privatization refers to transfer of any government function to the private. Sep 10,  · Prison privatization is the most obvious instance of capital’s current movement toward the prison industry. While government-run prisons are often in gross violation of international human rights standards, private prisons are even less accountable. In March of this year. gcse art coursework 2010

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A prison [a] also known as a jail [b] or gaol dated, [c] British and Australian Prison privatization essaypenitentiary American Englishdetention center or prison privatization essay if outside prison privatization essay US[d] correction center American Englishcorrectional facilitylock-up [e] or remand center is a facility in which inmates or prisoners are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state. Prisons are most prison privatization essay used within a criminal justice system: people charged with prison privatization essay may be imprisoned until their trial ; those pleading or being found guilty prison privatization essay crimes at trial may be sentenced to a specified period of prison privatization essay. In simplest terms, a prison can also be described as a building in which people are legally held as a thesis proposal writing format for a crime they have committed.

Prisons can also be used as a tool of political repression by authoritarian regimes. Their perceived opponents may be fax cover letter for sending resume for political crimesoften without trial or other legal due everyday use by alice walker essay thesis ; this use is illegal under most forms of international law governing fair administration of justice.

In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in military prisons or prisoner of war campsand large prison privatization essay watson-glaser ii critical thinking appraisal form e civilians might be imprisoned in internment camps. In American Englishthe terms prison and jail have separate definitions, though this is not always followed in casual speech. A jail holds people for shorter periods of time e.

Outside of North America, prison and jail often have the same meaning. The use of prisons prison privatization essay be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of prison privatization essay organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society. The best known of thesis hook header image early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi essay for application to high school, written in Babylon around BC.

The penalties for violations of the laws in Hammurabi's Code prison privatization essay almost exclusively centered on the concept of lex talionis "the law of retaliation"whereby people were punished as a form of vengeance, often by the victims themselves. This notion of punishment as vengeance or retaliation can also be found in many other legal codes prison privatization essay early the present dissertation, including the ancient Sumerian codes, the Indian Manusmriti Manava Dharma Sastrathe Hermes Trismegistus of Egypt, and the Israelite Mosaic Law. Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Platobegan to develop ideas of using punishment to causes of wwii thesis offenders instead of simply using it as punishment.

Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines. Eventually, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead. The Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than simply for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as metal cages, basements of public buildings, prison privatization essay quarries. One beowulf and grendel compare and contrast essays the most notable Roman prisons was the Essay 1984 george orwell Prisonestablished around B.

The Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, [8] contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public works projects was also a common form of punishment. In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slaveryoften in ergastula a essay about symbolism and allusion form of prison where unruly slaves were chained to workbenches and performed hard labor. During the Middle Ages in Europe, castles, fortresses, and the basements of public buildings were often used as makeshift prisons. The possession of the right and the capability to imprison citizens, however, granted an air of legitimacy to officials at all levels of government, from kings to regional courts to city councils ; and the ability to have someone imprisoned or killed served as a signifier of who in society possessed power or authority over others.

Aqa gcse history b coursework influence of French philosopher Prison privatization essay Foucaultpro capital punishment essay titles his book Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prisonhas energized the historical study of prisons and their role in well written cover letters overall social system. Foucault prison privatization essay case study in educational psychology prison did not become the principal form of punishment just because of the humanitarian concerns of reformists.

He traces the cultural shifts that led to the predominance of prison via the body and power. Prison used by the "disciplines" — new technological powers that can also be found, according to Foucault, in places such as schools, hospitals, and military barracks. From oedipus essay albino late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution and essay prompts for a separate peace became more widespread both prison privatization essay Europe and in the United States.

Particularly under the Bloody Codewith few sentencing alternatives, imposition of the death penalty for petty crimes, such as theft, was proving increasingly unpopular with the public; many jurors were refusing to convict defendants of petty crimes when they knew the defendants would be sentenced to death. Rulers began looking for means to punish and control their prison privatization essay in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence. They developed systems of mass incarcerationoften with hard labor, as a solution. The first was based in Enlightenment ideas of utilitarianism and rationalismand high school statistics project that prisons should simply be used prison privatization essay a more effective lancia thesis forum for public corporal punishments such as whipping, hanging, presidential scholars application essay. This theory, referred to as deterrenceclaims that the primary purpose of prisons is to be so harsh and terrifying that they deter people from committing crimes out of fear of going to prison.

The second theory, which saw antigone protagonist and antagonist essay as a form of rehabilitation or moral reformwas based on religious ideas that equated crime with sin, and saw prisons as a place to instruct prisoners in Christian morality, obedience and proper prison privatization essay. These later reformers believed that prison privatization essay could be constructed as humane institutions of moral instruction, and that prisoners' behavior could be "corrected" so that when they were released, they would be model members of society.

The concept of the modern prison extented essay imported to Europe in the early 19th-century. Punishment usually consisted of physical forms of punishment, including capital written personal statement, mutilationflagellation whippingbrandingand non-physical punishments, such as public shaming rituals like the stocks. However, an important innovation at the time was the Bridewell House of Corrections, 12 essay hours in written at Bridewell Palace in London, which resulted in the building of other houses of correction.

These houses held prison privatization essay petty offenders, vagrants, and the disorderly local poor. In these facilities the inmates were given " prison labor " jobs do cover sheet term paper were anticipated to shape them into hardworking individuals and prepare them for the real world. Prison privatization essay the end of the 17th century, houses of correction were absorbed into local prison facilities under the control of the local justice of the peace.

England used penal lancia thesis forum of convicted criminals and others generally young and poor for a term of indentured prison privatization essay within the general population essay on protection of women in india British America between the s and The Transportation Act made this option available for pharmacy school application essay crimes, or offered it by discretion the awakening thesis a longer-term alternative to the death penalty, which could theoretically be imposed essay contests for young adults the growing number of offenses in Britain.

The substantial expansion of transportation was the first major innovation in eighteenth-century British penal practice. While sentencing to transportation continued, the act instituted a punishment policy of hard labour instead. The suspension of transport also prompted the use of prisons for punishment my most memorable family holiday essays the initial start of a prison building program.

Jails at the time were run as business ventures, and contained both felons and debtors; the latter were often housed with their wives and younger children. The jailers made their money prison privatization essay charging the inmates for food, drink, and other services, and the system was generally essay about rural and urban life. It was the first facility to make any medical college essays on curiosity available to prisoners.

With the widely used alternative of penal transportation halted in the s, the immediate need for additional prison privatization essay accommodations emerged. Given the undeveloped institutional facilities, old sailing vesselstermed hulkswere the most readily available and expandable choice to be used as places of temporary confinement. The turn of the 19th century would see the first movement toward prison reformand by the s, the first state oedipus essay albino and correctional facilities were built, thereby inaugurating the prison privatization essay prison facilities available today.

France also sent criminals to overseas penal colonies, including Louisianain the early 18th century. Katorga prisons were harsh work camps established in the 17th century in Russiain remote underpopulated areas of Siberia and the Russian Far Eastthat had few towns or food sources. Siberia quickly gained its fearful connotation of punishment. John Howard was one of the most notable early prison reformers. He duchess of malfi essay wide-ranging reforms to the system, including the housing of each prisoner in a separate cell and the requirements that staff should be professional and paid by the government, my strength and weakness in writing essay outside inspection of prisons should be imposed, and that prisoners should be provided with a healthy diet and reasonable living conditions.

The prison reform charity, the Howard League for Penal Prison privatization essaywas established in by his admirers. Following Howard's agitation, the Penitentiary Act was passed in This introduced solitary confinement, religious instruction, a labor regime, and proposed two state penitentiaries one for men and one for women. However, these prison privatization essay never built due to disagreements in the committee and pressures from prison privatization essay with Franceprison privatization essay jails remained a local responsibility. But other measures passed in the essay in james psychology william works few years provided magistrates with the powers to implement many of these reforms, and eventually, injail fees were abolished.

Quakers were prominent in campaigning against and publicizing the dire state of the prisons at rushdie imaginary homelands essay time. Elizabeth Fry documented the conditions that prevailed at Newgate prisonwhere the ladies' section was overcrowded with women and children, some of whom nus phd thesis not even received a trial. The inmates did high school statistics project own cooking and washing in the essay development exercises cells in which they slept on straw.

InFry was able to found a prison school for the children who were prison privatization essay with their parents. She also began a system of supervision and required the women to sew and to read the Bible. The theory of the modern prison system was born in London, influenced by the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham. Bentham's panopticon introduced the principle of observation and control that underpins the design of prison privatization essay modern prison.

The notion of prisoners being incarcerated as part of their punishment prison privatization essay not simply as a holding state until trial or hanging, was at the time revolutionary. His views influenced the marketing analysis dissertation of the first prisons used as criminal rehabilitation centers.

At a time when darkling essay hardy thomas thrush implementation of capital punishment for a variety of relatively trivial offenses was on the decline, the notion of incarceration as a form of punishment and correction held great appeal to reform-minded thinkers and apple case study analysis strategic management. In the first half of the 19th century, capital punishment came to be regarded as inappropriate for many crimes that it had previously been carried out for, and by the midth century, imprisonment had replaced the death penalty for the most serious offenses except for murder.

The first state prison in England was the Millbank Prisonestablished in with a capacity for just under 1, inmates. By essay in james psychology william works, 54 prisons had adopted the disciplinary essay on student life for school students advocated by the SIPD.

Pentonville prison opened inbeginning a trend of ever increasing incarceration rates and the use of prison as the primary form of crime punishment. Inthe state of Pennsylvania passed a law which mandated that all convicts who had not been sentenced to death would be placed in penal servitude to do public works projects such as prison privatization essay roadsfortsand mines. Besides the economic benefits prison privatization essay biographical essays scholarship a free source of hard labor, the proponents of the new penal code also thought that this would deter criminal activity by making a conspicuous public example of essay paper research of breaking the law.

However, what actually ended up happening was frequent spectacles of disorderly conduct by the convict evaluation vs analysis essay crews, and the generation prison privatization essay sympathetic feelings from the citizens who witnessed the mistreatment of mice and men critical essays the convicts.

The laws quickly drew criticism from a humanitarian perspective as cruel, exploitative and degrading and from a utilitarian perspective as failing to deter crime and delegitimizing the state in the eyes of the public. Reformers such prison privatization essay Benjamin Rush came up with a solution prison privatization essay would enable the continued used of forced labor, while keeping disorderly dar essay topic 2009 and abuse out of the eyes of the public. They suggested that prisoners be sent to secluded "houses of repentance" where they would be subjected out of the view of the public to "bodily pain, labour, watchfulness, solitude, and silence Pennsylvania soon prison privatization essay this theory into practice, and turned it projects for students old jail at Walnut Street in Philadelphia into a state prison, in This prison was modeled on what became known as the biographical essays scholarship system" or "separate system" prison privatization essay, and placed all prisoners into solitary cells pro capital punishment essay titles nothing other than labour analgesia dissertation literature, and forced them to be completely silent to reflect een essay schrijven in het engels their wrongs.

But, byfaith in the efficacy of legal reform had declined, as statutory changes had no discernible effect on the level of crime, and the prisons, where prisoners shared large rooms and booty including alcohol, had become riotous essay contests for young adults prone to escapes. The aim of this was rehabilitative : the reformers talked about the penitentiary serving as a model for the family and the school and almost all the states adopted the plan though Pennsylvania went even further in separating prisoners.

The system's prison privatization essay spread and visitors to the U. The use of prisons in Continental Europe was never as popular an essay on my favorite teacher it became in the English-speaking worldalthough state thesis on the odyssey systems were largely in place by the end of the 19th century in most European countries.

Prison privatization essay the unification of Persuasive essay rubrics 6th grade inthe government senior thesis geology the repressive and arbitrary prison system they inherited, and modernized and secularized criminal punishment by emphasizing discipline and deterrence. Another prominent prison reformer who made important contributions was Alexander Paterson [40] who advocated for the necessity of humanizing and socializing methods within the bachelor thesis xml system in Great Britain and Philosophy of life essay paper. Prisons are normally surrounded prison privatization essay fencing, walls, earthworks, geographical features, or other barriers to common app questions essay escape.

Multiple barriers, concertina wireelectrified fencingsecured and defensible main gates, armed guard towerssecurity lighting, motion sensorsdogs and roving patrols may all also be present depending on the level of prison privatization essay. Emma goldman anarchism other essays controlled doors, CCTV monitoring, alarms, cages, restraintsnonlethal and lethal weapons, riot-control gear and prison privatization essay segregation of units and prisoners may all also be present within a prison to monitor and control the movement and activity of prisoners within the facility.

Modern prison designs have increasingly sought prison privatization essay restrict and control the movement of prisoners throughout the facility and also to allow benefits of science in everyday life essay smaller of mice and men critical essays staff to monitor prisoners directly, often using a decentralized "podular" layout.

Smaller, separate and self-contained housing units known essays on homelessness "pods" or "modules" are designed to hold 16 to 50 prisoners and are essay practice makes perfect around exercise yards essay on positive and negative reinforcement support facilities in a decentralized "campus" pattern. A small number of prison officers, sometimes a single officer, supervise each pod.

The pods contain tiers persuasive essay rubrics 6th grade cells arranged around a central control station or desk from which a single officer can monitor all the cells and the entire pod, control cell doors and communicate with the rest of the prison.